The free surface shock wave (FSSW) generated by a wedge model is numerically studied. The numerical simulations performed by the finite difference method employing density function method show the systematic variation of the shock phenomenon due to the Froude number based on the draft as obtained by experiments. The typical nonlinear phenomena like wave breaking and abrupt changes of velocity vectors are successfully captured and the details of wave breaking induced by the FSSW are clarified. Wave breaking occurs to weaken the nonlinearity and shear vortex and longitudinal vortex are generated from the overturning point on the free surface. After the wave breaking a steep wave is reproduced due to the nonlinearity. This seems to be periodically repeated.
This report reviews various studies on atmospheric pressure waves that have been generated from large earthquakes, tsunamis, and large-scale volcanic eruptions. These waves described here include low-frequency acoustic and gravity waves (0.0008∼0.0166 Hz or its period 1∼20 min) and high to medium frequency (› 0.0166 Hz or its period ‹ 1 min) infrasonic air-waves. The low-frequency acoustic-gravity waves came from coseismic vertical ground deformation associated with two megathrust earthquakes, and sometimes from other large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, which propagated to more than several thousand kilometers through the lower to part of the upper atmosphere. The waves that reached the upper atmosphere could cause traveling ionospheric disturbances and perturbations of total electron content. The higher frequency infrasounds also have often been observed after large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, which traveled as air-waves propagating directly from the source, and also as air-waves coupled with traveling seismic Rayleigh waves. Small atmospheric perturbations have also been detected during propagation of tsunami waves caused secondarily by large submarine earthquakes. Theoretical waveform modeling has been made in some of the above cases, incorporating a realistic atmospheric temperature structure. It is expected that more detailed information about the source process of large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions could be extracted through the analysis of the waveforms recorded at a number of stations, including their maximum amplitudes, wave frequencies, duration times, directions of wave approach, and phase and group velocities.
The romance novel or romantic novel is a literary genre. The history begin Samuel Richardson's popular 1740 novel "Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded". Now romance fiction comprises 48.8% of all popular paperback fiction sold in North America. This genre is popular in Europe and Australia, and translated in 90 languages. Romance novels place their primary focus on the relationship and "romantic love" between two people, and must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending.How the meaning of the "romantic love" is understood by women?For the purpose of studying the genre "Romance", this article pursues the effect and influence of mainly women' s reading upon the understanding of "romantic love" in the English Language Countries.
Emotional state before sleep affects the subsequent sleep onset. The purpose of this study was to investigate how positive/negative emotion before sleep effected hypnagogic state. The movies eliciting positive or negative emotion were presented before sleep. Hypnagogic imagery was recorded as a probe of emotional experience and EEG microstate analysis was used for finding the emotion related EEG activities. The score of emotion ratings for hypnagogic imagery indicated that positive emotion was reported in not only positive condition but also in negative condition. This implied that hypnagogic state might be accompanied by positive emotion. Comparing the appearance of maps obtained from microstate analysis between conditions, the map of right temporal activity was significantly greater in positive condition while the map of the left frontal activity was greater negative condition. These results suggested that the emotion not just in presleep but also in hypnagogic state was involved in sleep onset process.
The distribution of latrines of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, was examined from July 2006 to December 2007 in the Imperial Palace grounds, Tokyo, Japan. The raccoon dog is accustomed to defecate at fixed locations, forming holding latrines; thus the distribution of latrines is a good indicator of their abundance. The results suggest that the latrines are widely scattered in the study site, but are more dense in the Fukiage area, where an old-growth broad-leaved forest is established. The latrine sites are used more frequently from September to December, as the number of fresh feces increased in the autumnal season. To examine the seasonal food changes of the raccoon dogs, 10 pieces of feces from some latrines were collected every month and analyzed the indigestible contents in the sampled feces. The food items identified consisted of animal, plant and man-made materials, suggesting that the raccoon dogs were highly omnivorous. The animal materials found from the feces included mammals (4% of total feces), birds (37%), reptiles (2%), amphibians (3%), insects (95%), chilopods (56%), isopods (2%) and gastropods (12%). Invertebrates were the most abundand food item throughout the year. Three coleopteran families, the Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Scarabaeidae, accounted for a large proportion of the insects and they showed seasonal fluctuations. These suggest that the raccoon dogs fed on them as major animal food resources in the study site, and perhaps the seasonality is related to the temporal changes of availability of the insects. The majority of plant materials found in the feces was a variety of seeds, suggesting that the raccoon dogs fed on berries and fleshy fruits throughout the year. The occurrence of seeds decreased from March to April, which coincided with a low availability of fruits. The seeds found in feces were categorized into three types : (1) the short-term berry type including Prunus (Cerasus) spp., Moms spp., Rubus hirsutus and Machilus thunbergii, which occurred only a short term after their fruiting periods ; (2) the long-term berry type, including Celtis sinensis, Aphananthe aspera and Swida controversa, which occurred continuously for three or more months after the fruiting periods ; (3) the acorn type, including Castanopsis spp., Quercus spp. and Ginkgo biloba, which occurred in early spring (January to April) when the other fruits are scarce. The seasonal change of the three fruit types implies that the raccoon dogs consume the available fruits in relation to the successive fruiting periods. The proportion of artificial materials found in the feces was considerably lower than in previous studies carried out in the suburbs of Tokyo, suggesting that the raccoon dogs in the study site strongly depend on natural foods. Most of the natural food items were native to Japan since the past Edo period. Thus we conclude that the preservation of biodiversity in the Imperial Palace grounds was essential for the re-colonization by the raccoon dogs of the Tokyo metropolitan area after the 1970s.
A large number of Photobacterium phosphoreum (6-7 log/g) was isolated from “tamagoyaki” (a kind of nigirisushi; Japanese food) that had been lumineferous in the dark. The isolates were smeared on the surfaces of sliced “tamagoyakis”. After the incubation at 10°C for 48 hr or at 25°C for 24 hr, the surfaces became luminous. It was indicated that this abnormality of “tamagoyaki” was caused by contamination with and multiplication by P. phosphoreum.On the surface of “tamagoyaki”, the bacteria in an early growth phase in such a small number as 4 log/g luminesced. Furthermore, the luminescence was observed when pieces of squid, boiled prawn or “yakichikuwa” (a kind of food made of fishes) with the bacteria were incubated, but not observed on pickled Japanese gizzard shad. Nevertheless the the bacteria grew on the surface of tuna, but no luminescence was observed on it.The bacteria produced a small amount of histamine on squid and tuna (less than 250μg/g), and their ability to putrefy food seemed to be low.The opitmum concentration of sodium chloride for growth of the bacteria in a medium was 3%, but they grew in food containing sodium chloride less than 0.5%. When sodium chloride in the medium was replaced by potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride or sodium phosphate, the bacteria were still able to grow but unable to grow when replaced by potassium phosphate or sucrose. The bacteria metabolized arginine by arginine decarboxylase but not by arginine dehydrolase.
Various researches highlight that indoor air quality affects performance of workers in offices. Although good indoor air quality improves work performance, it also increases energy consumption. In this study, we achieved a field survey in a real office in order to investigate the relationship between thermal environment, productivity, and energy consumption. In addition to the monitoring of indoor environmental quality and energy consumption, subjective experiments were conducted. In order to evaluate subjective performance, workers and students responded to questionnaires, and to evaluate objective performance, students simulated three types of office works. By calculating room temperature and worker's subjective performance, we demonstrate the correlation between room temperature and worker's performance (R2=0.22, p